Notes : : Print in Good Form

[1] Editorial note, Form, no. 1 (1966): p. 3.

[2] Paraphrased from Barthes, Roland "The Activity of Structuralism," (as Stephen Bann translates the title of a shortened version of the essay M. Barthes wrote for Les Lettres Nouvelles in 1963, as collected in 1964 for Barthes' Essais Critiques) or "The Structuralist Activity" (as the essay is translated by Richard Howard for the English version of Critical Essays published in 1972).

[3] Art Since 1900: Modernism, Antimodernism, Postmodernism, ed. Hal Foster, Yve-Alain Bois, Benjamin Buchloh, and Rosalind Krauss (New York: Thames & Hudson, 2004), ix.

[4] These magazines range from a constructivist/Futurist 'Left Front of the Arts) in Soviet Union of the 1920s (LEF) to eclectic criticism and poetry from New York in the 60s (Kulchur)—they are ordered above as they appeared, one for each journal with the exception of two issues (6 and 7) devoted to De Stijl.


[6] Joaquim Moreno, Clip/Stamp/Fold: Radical Architecture of Little Magazines 196X-197X,

[7] In a parallel history, one might ironically chart the meteoric rise of the Helvetica typeface, peaking in the 60s for the design world, before it became popularly considered overused in the 70s, garish in the 80s, and pervasive through the 90s: however, there is evidence that properly used Helvetica remains fashionable today. See Lars Müller, Helvetica: Homage to a Typeface, (Self Published, 2002).

[8] Perloff. (1990), 21.

[9] Barthes. The Grain of the Voice, trans. Linda Coverdale (Farrar, Straus, and Giroux: New York, 1985), 27.

[10] Barthes (1985), 27-28.

[11] Barthes (1985), 27.

[12] Barthes, The Pleasure of the Text, trans. Richard Miller (Hill and Wang: New York, 1975),

[13] Originally published as "Film als reine Gestaltung" in Die Form 4, no. 10, (1929): 241-248. (Standish Lawder, Translator's Note, Form, no. 1 (1966): 5).

[14] Form, no. 1 (1966), p. 5.

[15] Lawder, 5.

[16] Lawder, 5.

[17] Theodore van Doesburg, "Film as Pure Form," trans. Standish Lawder, Form, no. 1 (1966): 7-8.

[18] Van Doesburg, 8-9.

[19] Van Doesburg, 11.

[20] Steve McCaffery, "Diminished Reference and the Model Reader," North of Intention: Critical Writings 1973-1986 (New York: Roof Books, 1986), 20-21.

[21] Van Doesburg, 11.

[22] Susan Sontag. "Film and Theatre," The Tulane Drama Review 11, no. 1, (1966): 25. For some time, all useful ideas in art have been extremely sophisticated. Like the idea that everything is what it is, and not another thing. A painting is a painting. Sculpture is sculpture. A poem is a poem, not prose. Etcetera. And the complementary idea: a painting can be "literary" or sculptural, a poem can be prose, theatre can emulate and incorporate cinema, cinema can be theatrical. (Sontag, 37.)

[23] Nam June Paik, Manifestos, ed. Dick Higgins (reprinted on UbuWeb in the ubuclassics series, ), 25. Another influential gathering of writers in 1966, Dick Higgins' Manifestos further solidified the evolving Fluxus movement by gathering conceptual artists like Alan Kaprow and Diter Rot, countercultural poets John Giorno and Jerome Rothenberg, and even Emmett Williams, several of these concrete poets were involved with Stephen Bann's important Concrete Poetry: An International Anthology of 1967.

[24] Black Mountain appears in exactly half the issues of Form (nos. 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9).